These rules are in line with the policy decisions announced last week.
One of the requirements is that exam boards must make sure marks are changed on review only if a mistake was made in the original marking. This will make the system fairer for all students.
The rules also require the exam boards to pilot an additional ground for appeal this year in A level geography, physics and religious studies. This will allow schools and colleges who remain concerned that a marking error has not been corrected on review to appeal on that basis.
Most of the rules on reviews of teacher marking will come into force at a later date.
The rules do not stop exam boards accepting requests for reviews of marking and appeals directly from students, but exam boards do not have to do so. Exam boards can continue past practice and accept review and appeal applications only from schools and colleges.
Ofqual has also published statutory guidance on how exam boards should decide whether a marking error was made.